Update: A huge thanks to Ingix and Tomas for spotting an arithmetic problem! All calculations and excel file have been updated to reflect the correct math. Now the only small differences should be the insignificant rounding errors. Also please keep in mind that this simplified way doesn’t count with eg. employee deduction. So if you count with employee rate, you have to put in the full figure!
Creating games is expensive. Today I’d like to invite you behind the scenes of my thought process when coming up with the realistic target for our IndieGoGo campaign. While it looked easy at first, as soon as I approached the problem, it became obvious that there were way too many variables to guarantee an easy path.
Please note: this post is mostly centered on boring numbers and some elementary math. You have been warned!
In my case, I started from the economic side of things. Even if I had neat and finalized budgets for our pitches to various publishers for full games, immediately I recognized that it is way out of our league for crowdfunding. Instead I came up with the idea of enhancing a game which was already finished. This way the necessary investment wouldn’t be too big. But I still had to figure out how much money we needed.
Instead of guesswork, I decided to simplify my life by doing some rough calculations.
We are a two-man team, so let’s try the idea of a small expansion which would be possible to complete in 3 months. I knew that we wouldn’t be able to cover our full-time expenses and the budget would have to be very modest. But even then we can’t go under $800 / per man-month.
Basically, two people working three months for $800 need $4,800 just for the basic production.
Calculating additional costs
With J.U.L.I.A. we already had all the tools on hand so luckily we didn’t need any additional licenses. Still we needed the game to be proofread / text edited and to pay voice actors. At minimum we are going to need $1.500 for additional costs.
To sum it up: the original production sum was $6.300!
And, sadly, that’s far from finished.
Understanding IndieGoGo costs
As soon as you reach your target, you have to forget about roughly 9.1% of your incomes. 4% takes IndieGoGo and 5.1% takes PayPal (PayPal is unpredictable because it charges different percentage based upon the country of the pledger!). As if this was not enough, you also need to calculate VAT. In our country VAT is a hefty sum of 21%. Even if you might have heard otherwise, as soon as you start digging deeper, you usually find out you must pay VAT (even if it has me tearing my hair off). As if this was not enough, you pay both VAT and the IGG/PayPal from the total sum.
The easy way to explain the price deduction is through this formula:
Result = Pledged money * (1 – (VAT/100+VAT) ) – (Pledged money * 0.091)
This means, that from our original $6.300 we would get only $4.592. These aren’t numbers I came up with, but the result of consulting with a tax expert and independently verified with other tax experts as the VAT was hard to swallow. Not only that, but even if you are NOT a VAT payer, the first pledge from within the EU will make you one.
The bottom line is that before you go and start crowdfunding, check with your local tax expert to understand the impact of taxes in your country. Common sense doesn’t apply when it comes to taxes and your country will want to rob you as much as possible.
So what to do if we wanted to actually reach our original target? Let’s reverse the formula:
Let VAT coeficient is V, IGG is I (9.1%), Target is T and Needed money is N
To calculate VAT coeficient you need to use the following formula:
V= 100 * VAT / 100 + VAT
Then you arrive at the right conclusion through:
T = N / ((100 – V- I ) /100)
In our case to get $6,300, we would punch in numbers to get:
T = 6,300 / ((100-17.36-9.1) / 100) = 6,300 / (73.54 / 100) = 6,300 / 0,7354= $8,566.77
Are we done yet?
Unfortunately no… There are those pledge rewards and other than the digital-only tiers, they are going to cost us extra money AND shipping and handling. While I will be devoting an entire section of this blog in the future to these, for now, let me just say that you roughly need to count on 15% of the originally pledged money to cover these incentives. I came up with this number by making an approximation of similar projects and asking around about production costs. As it was fairly complex procedure, take it as a face value (I won’t bore you with statistics in here) and let’s plug it into our bloated formula!
Let VAT coeficient is V (17.36%), IGG is I (9.1%), Pledge Rewards are P, Target is T and Needed money is N
T = N / ((100 – V- I – P ) /100)
To make a long story short: T = $6,300 / 0.5854 = $10,761.87
Trimming it down!
No way can we start that high of a funding goal on IGG. As I’ve already stated in my first post, we were not well known and didn’t have much of a fan base. I still wanted our crowdfunding campaign to be a success story, so I came up with the idea to strip our project goals down to a more modest but still substantial enhancement.
I’ve set myself a limit of $5,000 and using my calculations I’ve already known, that I was going to have roughly $2,927 for a production. This will leave me with 2.5 months of one person (Lukáš, who does the visuals) and $927 for additional costs needed to finish the product. I’ve decided to do this enhancement for free with a vision to get my investment back from the finished product sales.
2.5 months is not much time so I reduced the enhancement project down to the essential tasks:
- Recreate Rachel Manners from scratch, making the used model much more human
- Redesigning some of the game interface
- Refine some of the puzzles to make them more player reactive
The rest of the tasks I chose to enhance were script/programming/music/sfx. These I am doing myself so no direct investment of backers’ money is needed. Also I have to to cover some of the aforementioned direct expenses and this money split could just barely work.
Helping you out!
In case you still think that crowdfunding is a good idea, I’ve created an Excel spreadsheet for you, which helps you calculate some rough numbers. I’ve preset the values for a small dummy project just to show you h0w it can be used.
Of course in reality you are going to add another people to the team like Game Designer, Writer and so on and also modify their salaries! You might also want to put in office rent, website hosting costs etc. This is just to demonstrate how the IGG calculator works.
In this chapter I’ve tried to draw you into my thought process of coming up with a realistic numbers for a crowdfunding campaign. Next time we are going to look into pledges and pledge rewards.
Thank you so much for reading my post and your comments and suggestions are extremely welcome!